The Importance of Green Leaves

  Chlorosis in a River Birch causing a die-back in the canopy

Chlorosis in a River Birch causing a die-back in the canopy

I have been noticing what I consider to be an unacceptable amount of chlorosis in urban trees around Columbus. In general, chlorosis is the yellowing of plant foliage caused by a lack of chlorophyll. This is a problem because plants depend on chlorophyll to absorb energy from sunlight and to survive.

Several factors can contribute to the development of chlorosis in trees such as nutrient deficiency, drought, poorly drained and compacted soils, girdling roots, graft union incompatibility and mechanical damage to the tree trunk. For the purpose of this article, I’m going to focus on chlorosis caused by nutrient deficiency because I believe it’s the most prevalent and most often mismanaged. Although any nutrient deficiency could lead to chlorosis in trees, manganese and iron deficiency is what we see most.

  Chlorosis in a Red Maple

Chlorosis in a Red Maple

  Chlorosis in a Pin Oak

Chlorosis in a Pin Oak

It is important to understand that the availability of nutrients from the soil can vary with soil pH.  For example, even though there may be an adequate amount of manganese for a certain tree in the soil, the soil pH can cause the manganese to be inaccessible by the tree. Most urban soils in central Ohio are alkaline. (A quick review for those of you who fell asleep in biology, the soil’s pH is an indicator of soil acidity or alkalinity. On a scale of 1-14, 7.0 is neutral, below 7.0 the pH is acidic, above 7.0 the pH is alkaline. Nutrients are most available to trees when the soil pH is between 5.0 and 6.5. Because most of our urban soils have a pH of around 7, we find ourselves dealing with chlorosis.

Initially, chlorosis expresses itself in the canopy of trees by the yellowing of foliage with a network of green veins.  As the chlorosis progresses, leaves become a paler yellow and develop brown necrotic lesions. Leaf margins will eventually brown completely and leaves will dry up and fall off.   Over time this results in poor vigor, reduced twig extension, poor density of canopy, dieback and eventual tree death.

The easiest way to manage chlorosis is to prevent it by planting urban tolerant trees that are tolerant of high pH soils. Although most trees species have the potential to develop chlorosis, the most common trees affected by high pH soils in central Ohio are Pin oak, Red maple, River birch, Shingle Oak, Red Oak, Sweetgum, White pine, and Canadian Hemlock. If you notice yellow leaves on your trees (and it is not time for Fall color) it is important to take action for long-term preservation. 

 
  Russell Tree Experts Tree Wellness Technician Collecting a Soil Sample

Russell Tree Experts Tree Wellness Technician Collecting a Soil Sample

 

The first step is to have a soil and plant tissue test performed. This is the only way to know which nutrients are lacking in your trees and soil. Any attempt at correcting chlorosis without the information from these tests is guesswork and treatment without proper diagnosis is malpractice. We can have these tests performed for you,  interpret the results, and determine the best management for your tree(s).

Just another way Russell Tree Experts is keeping Ohio green!

TJ Nagel
ISA CERTFIED ARBORIST® OH-6298A